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One prominent hypothesis is that ancestral women selectively engaged in short-term mating with men capable of transmitting genetic benefits to their offspring such as health, disease resistance, or attractiveness see good genes theory and sexy son hypothesis. Since women cannot inspect men's genes directly, they may have evolved to infer genetic quality from certain observable characteristics see indicator traits.

One prominent candidate for a "good genes" indicator includes fluctuating asymmetry, or the degree to which men deviate from perfect bodily symmetry. Other candidates include masculine facial features, [29] behavioral dominance, [30] and low vocal pitch. Indeed, research indicates that self-perceived physical attractiveness, [32] fluctuating asymmetry, [33] and low vocal pitch [34] are positively related to short-term mating success in men but not in women.

Women are thought to seek long-term partners with resources such as shelter and food that provide aid and support survival of offspring.

Why You Date Who You Date: Evolutionary Psychology Explains | Thought Catalog

Research on the conditional nature of mating strategies has revealed that long-term and short-term mating preferences can be fairly plastic. Following exposure to cues that would have been affected mating in the ancestral past, both men and women appear to adjust their mating preferences in ways that would have historically enhanced their fitness. Such cues include the need to care for young, danger from animals and other humans, and resource availability.

In , the evolutionary psychologist David Schmitt conducted a multinational survey of sexual attitudes and behaviors involving 48 countries called the International Sexual Description Project ISSR. One way in which the more numerous sex might compete is by displaying the attributes that are most desired by the scarcer sex. Since men have a greater desire for casual sex see above , societies with more women relative to men were predicted to exhibit higher scores on the SOI than societies with more balanced or male-biased sex ratios.

This prediction was confirmed: In societies where extensive care from both parents is needed to ensure offspring survival, the costs of having sex with an uncommitted partner are much higher. Schmitt found significant negative correlations between several indices of need for biparental care e. Another important societal variable for mating strategies is the threat of infectious disease or pathogen prevalence.

Since physical attractiveness is thought to signal health and disease resistance, evolutionary psychologists have predicted that, in societies high in pathogen prevalence, people value attractiveness more in a mate. Indeed, research has confirmed that pathogen prevalence is associated with preferences for attractiveness across nations. Consistent with this reasoning, higher pathogen prevalence is associated with lower national SOI scores.

Some evolutionary psychologists have argued that mating strategies can influence political attitudes. According to this perspective, different mating strategies are in direct strategic conflict. For instance, the stability of long-term partnerships may be threatened by the availability of short-term sexual opportunities. Therefore, public policy measures that impose costs on casual sex may benefit people pursuing long-term mating strategies by reducing the availability of short-term mating opportunities outside of committed relationships.

One public policy measure that imposes costs on people pursuing short-term mating strategies, and may thereby appeal to sexually restricted individuals, is the banning of abortion. In an influential doctoral dissertation, the psychologist Jason Weeden conducted statistical analyses on public and undergraduate datasets supporting the hypothesis that attitudes towards abortion are more strongly predicted by mating-relevant variables than by variables related to views on the sanctity of life.

Weeden and colleagues have also argued that attitudes towards drug legalization are driven by individual differences in mating strategies. Insofar as sexually restricted individuals associate recreational drug use with promiscuity, they may be motivated to oppose drug legalization. Consistent with this, one study found that the strongest predictor of attitudes towards drug legalization was scores on the SOI.

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By contrast, nonsexual variables typically associated with attitudes towards drug legalization were strongly attenuated or eliminated when controlling for SOI and other sexuality-related measures. These findings were replicated in Belgium, Japan, and the Netherlands.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Arranged marriage and Forced marriage. Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology , A nation study of sex, culture, and strategies of human mating". Behavioral and Brain Sciences , 28 2 , — Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 85 1 , Theoretical views, conceptual distinctions, and a review of relevant evidence".

Personality and Social Psychology Review , 5 3 , — Psychological Bulletin , 1 , Current Directions in Psychological Science , 20 5 , — Current Directions in Psychological Science , 21 2 , — A2 student book for AQA A psychology 3rd ed.

Why we're closer than ever to a timeline for human evolution

Mate retention tactics in married couples". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 72, — And above all, how constant is the molecular clock? It turns out that among primates, the molecular clock varies significantly by species, sex, and mutation type. A recent study found that New World monkeys i. But even among humans, mutation rates differ, particularly between the sexes with age. As fathers get older, they gain about one additional mutation per year in the DNA they can pass on to children.

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Mothers, on the other hand, accumulate considerably fewer mutations with each passing year. These species and sex differences make sense when you consider how mutations form.

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Most heritable mutations occur from mistakes when DNA copies itself in the germline, or cells leading to eggs and sperm. The number of times germline DNA has to copy itself depends on developmental and reproductive variables including age at puberty, age at reproduction, and the process of sperm production. These traits vary across primates today, and certainly varied over primate evolution.

For instance, average generation times are six years for New World monkeys, 19 years for gorillas, 25 years for chimps, and 29 years for humans. And those extra mutations as fathers get older? Sperm are produced continuously after puberty, so sperm made later in life are the result of more rounds of DNA replication and opportunities for replication errors. The small increase with maternal age could be due to mutations from DNA damage, rather than replication errors.

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  • However, researchers can secure the timeline for important evolutionary events by combining new methods of genetic dating with fossils and geologic ages. Innovative computational methods have incorporated reproductive variables into calculations. By taking into account ages of reproduction in both sexes, age of male puberty, and sperm production rates, researchers have estimated split times that accord with the fossil record. Another new approach has analysed mutations that are mainly independent of DNA replication.

    It seems that certain classes of mutations, related to DNA damage, do behave more clocklike. And some researchers have focused on ancient DNA. In other words, the woman is highly fertile: The hourglass figure is also more than just a pleasing view of good symmetry and proportion: Evolutionary psychology asserts that as a human being, the true forces that move you to act the way you do are your need to reproduce, have your genes passed on to the next generation, and ultimately ensure the survival of the species.

    Now, while evolutionary psychology sees men as selecting mates based on who would provide maximum opportunity for bearing offspring, it sees women in an entirely different light. In the evolutionary perspective, therefore, women are more attracted to men who can provide the financial resources needed for rearing children [read: Now before anyone charges evolutionary psychology of accusing women as mere gold-diggers and men as concerned only with the physical appearance of their mates, note that these speculations were not formed based on what seems instinctively right and observable in common scenarios, but are in fact grounded in research.

    nttsystem.xsrv.jp/libraries/41/pydaj-spion-pe-whatsapp.php One of the many studies that support how evolutionary psychology explains the mate selection process in humans is that of Buss and Barnes. Their research asked married couples how much importance they placed on certain characteristics when it came to choosing who they married. However, as consistent as these findings are in many other studies across different cultures, it is important to recognize the limitations of these results, as well as other considerations involved in this theory.